Brentwood Local Plan 2016 - 2033 (Pre-Submission, Regulation 19)

Ended on the 19th March 2019
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(1) Glossary

ABBREVIATIONS

ACV

Assets of Community Value

AMR

Authority Monitoring Report

AQMAs

Air Quality Management Areas

ASELA

Association of South Essex Local Authorities

BRE

Building Research Establishment

BREEAM

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method

CDA

Critical Drainage Area

CHP

Combined Heat and Power

CIL

Community Infrastructure Levy

DEFRA

Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs

DH

District Heating and cooling systems

DM

Development Management

DPD

Development Plan Document

EA

Environment Agency

ECC

Essex County Council

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

ELR

Employment Land Review

EqIA

Equalities Impact Assessment

FTTP

Fibre to the Premises (broadband)

GBI

Green and blue infrastructure

GPDO

General Permitted Development Order

GTAA

Gypsy and Traveller Accommodation Assessment

HCA

Homes and Community Agency

HELAA

Housing and Economic Land Availability Assessment

HRA

Habitat Regulation Assessment

IDP

Infrastructure Delivery Plan

JSP

(South Essex) Joint Strategic Plan

LAA

Local Area Agreement

LCA

Landscape Character Assessment

LCAP

Landscape Conservation Action Plan

NPPF

National Planning Policy Framework

OAHN

Objective Assessment of Housing Need

ONS

Office of National Statistics

PPG

Planning practice guidance

PPTS

Planning Policy for Traveller Sites

RAMS

Recreational disturbance Avoidance Mitigation Strategy

SA/SEA

Sustainability Appraisal/Strategic Environmental Assessment

SCI

Statement of Community Involvement

SFRA

Strategic Flood Risk Assessment

SHLAA

Strategic Housing Land Availability Assessment

SHMA

Strategic Housing Market Assessment

SoCG

Statement of Common Ground

SPD

Supplementary Planning Document

SSSI

Site of Special Scientific Interest

SuDS

Sustainable Drainage Systems

SWMP

Surface Water Management Plan

Note: This abbreviation is sometimes used for Site Waste Management Plans.

GLOSSARY

Affordable housing

Social rented, affordable rented and intermediate housing which is provided to specific eligible households whose housing needs are not met by the market housing on offer (including housing that provides a subsidised route to home ownership and/or is for essential local workers). Eligibility is determined with regard to local incomes and local house prices.

Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs)

Areas designated by local authorities because they are not likely to achieve national air quality objectives by the relevant deadlines.

Ancient woodland

An area that has been wooded continuously since at least 1600 AD. It includes ancient semi-natural woodland and plantations on ancient woodland sites (PAWS).

Archaeological interest

There will be archaeological interest in a heritage asset if it holds, or potentially holds, evidence of past human activity worthy of expert investigation at some point.

Biophilic design

Biophilic Design responds to the well documented knowledge that humans have an innate connection to nature and natural processes. It offers an approach to creating buildings and spaces that respond to our human needs – thereby making design 'human-scale'.

Incorporating biophilic design principles to the design of places and buildings not only means integrating nature (green infrastructure) into design proposals, but also incorporating natural analogues into the design of the built elements; these can include using elements that use references to, representations of, or mimic aspects of nature such as natural materials, colours, textures, natural geometries (fractals and curves), organic forms and patterns.

Brownfield sites

Land which is or has been previously developed as opposed to greenfield land which has never been developed. See 'previously developed land'.

Climate change adaptation

Adjustments made to natural or human systems in response to the actual or anticipated impacts of climate change, to mitigate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.

Climate change mitigation

Action to reduce the impact of human activity on the climate system, primarily through reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Community forest

An area identified through the England Community Forest Programme to revitalise countryside and green space in and around major conurbations.

Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL)

A mechanism by which charging authorities can set a standard charge on specified development in their area to pay for the new infrastructure required to support growth.

Community Right to Build Order

An Order made by the local planning authority (under the Town and Country Planning Act 1990) that grants planning permission for a site-specific development proposal or classes of development.

Conservation

The process of maintaining and managing change to a heritage asset in a way that sustains and, where appropriate, enhances its significance.

Conservation Area

An area of special architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance, designated under Section 69 of the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990.

Critical Drainage Areas (CDA)

A discrete geographical area (usually a hydrological catchment) where multiple or interlinked sources of flood risk cause flooding during a severe rainfall event thereby affecting people, property or local infrastructure. The CDA comprises the upstream contributing catchment, the influencing drainage catchments, surface water catchments and, where appropriate, a downstream area if this can have influence on CDA.

Curtilage

The area, usually enclosed, encompassing the grounds and buildings immediately surrounding a home that is used in the daily activities of domestic life.

Decentralised energy

Local renewable and local low-carbon energy sources that generate energy close to where it will be used, rather than at a large plant elsewhere and be sent through the national grid. This local generation reduces transmission losses and lowers carbon emissions. Examples are combined heat and power (CHP) plants and district heating (DH) schemes.

Deliverable

To be considered deliverable, sites for housing should be available now, offer a suitable location for development now, and be achievable with a realistic prospect that housing will be delivered on the site within five years. Sites that are not major development, and sites with detailed planning permission, should be considered deliverable until permission expires, unless there is clear evidence that homes will not be delivered within five years (e.g. they are no longer viable, there is no longer a demand for the type of units or sites have long term phasing plans). Sites with outline planning permission, permission in principle, allocated in the development plan or identified on a brownfield register should only be considered deliverable where there is clear evidence that this housing will be completed on site within five years.

Design and build with nature

Sometimes also referred to as 'nature-based solutions' it calls on design and building approaches to account for natural systems and ecosystem services, and to harness these natural processes to create smart and sustainable infrastructure to manage resources and climate impacts (such as sustainable urban drainage, passive heating and cooling, energy efficiency and waste management, etc). The approach is gaining traction with a number of guides starting to emerge[1]

Design code

A set of illustrated design requirements that provide specific, detailed parameters for the physical development of a site or area. The graphic and written components of the code should build upon a design vision, such as a masterplan or other design and development framework for a site or area.

Designated heritage asset

A World Heritage Site, Scheduled Monument, Listed Building, Protected Wreck Site, Registered Park and Garden, Registered Battlefield or Conservation Area designated under the relevant legislation.

Developable

To be considered developable, sites should be in a suitable location for housing development with a reasonable prospect that they will be available and could be viably developed at the point envisaged.

Duty to Co-operate

This is a legal duty that requires Local Planning Authorities and other prescribed public bodies to 'engage constructively, actively and on an ongoing basis' to develop strategic policies. It is a statutory test and a key issue when assessing the soundness of Local Plans.

Employment land review

Assesses the likely demand for, and supply of, land for employment uses including land currently in use for employment purposes; land currently allocated for employment purposes; and land with the potential to be suitable for employment purposes.

Environmental impact assessment

A procedure to be followed for certain types of project to ensure that decisions are made in full knowledge of any likely significant effects on the environment.

Five-year housing land supply

The new Local Plan must ensure that enough homes are provided and identify enough land to maintain a steady supply of housing over the plan period. This is commonly called maintaining a five-year housing land supply.

Green and blue infrastructure

Green and Blue Infrastructure (GBI) can be summarised as a network of multi-functional green space, both new and existing, both rural and urban, which supports the natural and ecological processes and is integral to the health and quality of life of sustainable communities. Green and Blue Infrastructure also encompasses river systems and coastal environments (these are sometimes also refer to as Blue Infrastructure). The Local Plan uses Green-Blue Infrastructure (GBI) and Green Infrastructure (GI) interchangeably).

Component elements of Green and Blue Infrastructure include natural and semi-natural green spaces such as parks, private gardens, agricultural fields, hedges, trees, woodland, green roofs, green walls, rivers and ponds. The term covers all land containing these features, regardless of its ownership, condition or size.

Green and Blue Infrastructure in the widest sense will be accepted in line with key institutional definitions including Natural England[2], Landscape Institute[3], Green Infrastructure Partnership[4], Ecosystems Knowledge Network[5]

Green Belt

A national planning policy designation given to land. Green Belts were designated to stop the uncontrolled growth of large cities and towns. The Green Belt can include both greenfield and brownfield (previously developed) sites in areas with both good and poor landscape value.

Green Belt assessment

An assessment of the Green Belt to determine the strategic role of the Green Belt in the District, whether the Green Belt fulfils its purpose as set out in the National Planning Policy Framework.

Greenfield sites

Land that has not been previously developed or undeveloped pieces of land. Greenfield sites are typically outside existing built-up areas, but areas such as open spaces and residential gardens are considered greenfield regardless of where they are located.

Gypsy and Traveller Pitch / Plot

Area of land on a site/development generally home to one household. Can be varying sizes and have varying caravan numbers. Pitches refer to Gypsy and Traveller sites and Plots to Travelling Showpeople yards.

Gypsy and Traveller Site

An area of land on which Gypsies, Travellers and Travelling Showpeople are accommodated in caravans/chalets/vehicles. Can contain one or multiple pitches/plots.

Habitat Regulations Assessment (HRA)

The Habitat Regulation Assessment forms part of the Local Plan evidence base. The Habitat Regulation Assessment is a statutory requirement under the Conservation (Natural Habitats) (Amendment) (England and Wales) Habitat Regulations Assessment Regulations 2006. An HRA is required for a plan or project which, either alone or in combination with other plans or projects is likely to have a significant effect on the integrity of a European site (one that forms part of the Natura 2000 (N2K) network), plus Ramsar sites (collectively 'international sites').

Harmonic design

Refers to composition of design elements such as balance, pattern, repetition, proportion, scale, rhythm, right amount of variety and detail, unity, etc, that come together to create a space that affords healthy functional qualities; different combinations will create spaces that are calming, versus spaces that afford social interaction and activity, without being overpowering and jarring.

Healthy-by-design

Healthy by Design promotes the ethos of incorporating healthier design considerations into masterplanning and place-making decisions. It is a process which ensures that all elements known to promote health and wellbeing are given due consideration when designing places and buildings to avoid adverse health impacts. There are numerous guides on how to delivery healthy environments, including a selection promoted by Public Health England[6].

Heritage Asset

Any structure, building, system facility and/or provision required by an area for its social and/or economic function and/or wellbeing including (but not exclusively): footways, cycleways and highways; public transport; drainage, SuDs and flood protection; waste recycling facilities; education and childcare; healthcare; sports, leisure and recreation facilities; community and social facilities; cultural facilities, including public art; emergency services; green infrastructure; open space; affordable housing; live/work units and lifetime homes; broadband and facilities for specific sections of the community such as youth or the elderly.

Housing and Economic Land Availability Assessment (HELAA)

The HELAA is a technical study which is used to assist in the monitoring of whether there is an adequate supply of deliverable housing land. It informs planning process in terms of identifying land that is suitable, available and achievable for housing and economic development uses over the Plan period. It identifies sites and broad locations with potential for development, assesses their development potential and assesses their suitability for development and the likelihood of that development coming forward.

Infrastructure

Infrastructure means any structure, building, system facility and/or provision required by an area for its social and/or economic function and/or well-being.

Any structure, building, system facility and/or provision required by an area for its social and/or economic function and/or wellbeing including (but not exclusively): footways, cycleways and highways; public transport; drainage, SuDs and flood protection; waste recycling facilities; education and childcare; healthcare; sports, leisure and recreation facilities; community and social facilities; cultural facilities, including public art; emergency services; green infrastructure; open space; affordable housing; live/work units and lifetime homes; broadband and facilities for specific sections of the community such as youth or the elderly.

Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP)

This document forms part of the evidence base for the Local Plan. It assesses the infrastructure capacity and needs of Brentwood, and provides an overview of the way infrastructure is planned and the agencies involved in its delivery. It also looks at costs and likely funding mechanisms for infrastructure, and forms the basis for assessing contributions that would be sought to meet the needs of new development.

Landscape Character Assessment

An assessment which describes the main types of landscape in an area and gives advice about the management and planning of the landscape.

Listed Building

A building is listed, on the National Heritage List for England, when it is of special architectural or historic interest considered to be of national importance.

Living landscapes

Key areas of landscape identified by Essex Wildlife Trust, which form ecological networks that allow wildlife to move through them and increase their resilience to threats such as climate change, floods drought, sea-level rise and development pressure. These areas are promoted for nature conservation, wildlife habitats, public enjoyment and adaptation to climate change.

Main town centre use

Retail development (including warehouse clubs and factory outlet centres); leisure, entertainment and more intensive sport and recreation uses (including cinemas, restaurants, drive-through restaurants, bars and pubs, nightclubs, casinos, health and fitness centres, indoor bowling centres and bingo halls); offices; and arts, culture and tourism development (including theatres, museums, galleries and concert halls, hotels and conference facilities).

Major development

For housing, development where 10 or more homes will be provided, or the site has an area of 0.5 hectares or more. For non-residential development it means additional floorspace of 1,000m2 or more, or a site of 1 hectare or more, or as otherwise provided in the Town and Country Planning (Development Management Procedure) (England) Order 2015.

Market housing

Private rented and housing for sale where prices are set in the open market.

Minerals Safeguarding Area

An area of land overlying or in the immediate vicinity of a mineral

resource that is defined on a map and is recognised through policy as an area that needs consideration if a non-mineral development is submitted for determination.

Multi-functional green space

Multi-functional refers to the ecosystem services that Green Infrastructure provides to tackle impacts of climate change, flood risk, water management, heat risk, food supply, providing efficient and renewable energy and creating comfortable, attractive places in which to live.

National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF)

A document that sets out the Government's planning policies for England and how these are expected to be applied.

Natural play area

Natural play areas are outdoor spaces designated for adventure play that are made of natural materials and incorporate natural components such as plants, logs, water, sand, mud, boulders, hills and trees. Natural Play does not just mean leaving a few logs on the ground, but is a combination of integrating quality structured play equipment in a natural context as well as interweaving nature and natural elements to create spaces where children can use their imagination to play thereby giving a wide range of play and learning experiences. Refer to guides by the National Trust, Woodland Trust as well as Play England[7].

Neighbourhood plans

A plan prepared by a Parish Council or Neighbourhood Forum for a particular neighbourhood area (made under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004).

Non-designated heritage asset

Buildings, monuments, sites, places, areas or landscapes identified as having a degree of significance meriting consideration in planning decisions but which are not statutorily recognised (i.e. they are not listed, not within a Conservation Area and not part of a Scheduled Monument).

Older people

People over or approaching retirement age, including the active, newly-retired through to the very frail elderly; and whose housing needs can encompass accessible, adaptable general needs housing through to the full range of retirement and specialised housing for those with support or care needs.

Open space

All open space of public value, including not just land, but also areas of water (such as rivers, canals, lakes and reservoirs) which offer important opportunities for sport and recreation and can act as a visual amenity.

Permitted development rights

Permission to carry out certain limited forms of development without the need to make an application to a local planning authority, as granted under the terms of the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order.

Planning condition

A condition imposed on a grant of planning permission (in accordance with the Town and Country Planning Act 1990) or a condition included in a Local Development Order or Neighbourhood Development Order.

Planning obligation

A legal agreement entered into under section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 to mitigate the impacts of a development proposal.

Planning Practice Guidance (PPG)

Guidance on best practice for implementing the Government's planning policies set out in the National Planning Policy Framework.

Policies map

A Ordnance Survey based map showing where policies and designations within the Local Plan apply.

Previously developed land

Land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure, including the curtilage of the developed land (although it should not be assumed that the whole of the curtilage should be developed) and any associated fixed surface infrastructure. This excludes: land that is or was last occupied by agricultural or forestry buildings; land that has been developed for minerals extraction or waste disposal by landfill, where provision for restoration has been made through development management procedures; land in built-up areas such as residential gardens, parks, recreation grounds and allotments; and land that was previously developed but where the remains of the permanent structure or fixed surface structure have blended into the landscape.

Protected lane

Lanes identified as being of special historic or landscape value in the countryside.

Ramsar sites

Wetlands of international importance, originally designated under the 1971 Ramsar Convention.

Registered Parks and Gardens

Sites included in the Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest compiled and maintained by English Heritage, which make a significant contribution to the diversity of the local and/or national landscape and/or which are or particular historical importance.

Renewable and low carbon energy

Includes energy for heating and cooling as well as generating electricity. Renewable energy covers those energy flows that occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment – from the wind, the fall of water, the movement of the oceans, from the sun and also from biomass and deep geothermal heat. Low carbon technologies are those that can help reduce emissions (compared to conventional use of fossil fuels).

Self-build and custom-build housing

Housing built by an individual, a group of individuals, or persons working with or for them, to be occupied by that individual. Such housing can be either market or affordable housing. A legal definition, for the purpose of applying the Self-build and Custom Housebuilding Act 2015 (as amended), is contained in section 1(A1) and (A2) of that Act.

Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

Land notified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 as an ecosystem of flora and/or fauna considered by Natural England to be of significant national value and interest to merit its conservation and management.

Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA)

This provides an overview of flood risk from all sources within a defined area and provides general guidance on flood risk and issues associated with flooding for the area being studied.

Strategic Housing Land Availability Assessment (SHLAA)

A technical study which identifies sites with development potential for housing and assesses their developability, deliverability and capacity.

Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA)

A technical study prepared for the Council which assesses the overall state of the housing market and advises on future housing policies used to inform the Council's Housing Strategy.

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS

This is a natural approach to managing drainage by slowing down and reducing the quantity of surface water run-off from a developed area to manage downstream flood risk and reducing the risk of the runoff causing pollution.

Sui generis

Planning uses falling outside the standard use classes, which can include betting offices, theatres, hostels, scrap yards, petrol stations, nightclubs, launderettes, casinos.

Supplementary Planning Document (SPD)

Documents which add further detail to the policies in the development plan. They can be used to provide further guidance for development on specific sites, or on particular issues, such as design. Supplementary planning documents are capable of being a material consideration in planning decisions but are not part of the development plan.

Surface Water Management Plan (SWMP)

Plan produced by the Lead Local Flood Authority (LLFA) that outlines the preferred surface water management strategy in a given location. These plans focus on areas of highest surface water flood risk and consider flooding from sewers, drains, groundwater and runoff from land, small water courses and ditches that occurs as a result of heavy rainfall.

Note: This abbreviation is sometimes used for Site Waste Management Plans.

Sustainable Transport Modes

Any efficient, safe and accessible means of transport with overall low impact on the environment, including walking and cycling, low and ultra-low emission vehicles, car sharing and public transport.

Universal design

Universal Design is the design of buildings, products or environments to be aesthetic and usable to the greatest extent possible by everyone and therefore accessible to all people, regardless of age, disability or other factors. Detailed guidance can be found on the website for Centre for Excellence in Universal Design (CEUD), by the National Disability Authority (NDA) Ireland[8].

Use Class

The Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 (as amended) puts uses of land and buildings into various categories known as 'Use Classes' e.g. A1 Shops, B1 Business and D1 Non-Residential institutions. Planning permission is generally required to change from one use class to another, although there are some exceptions.

Wider determinants of health

Wider Determinants of Health draws attention to the broad range of individual, social, economic and environmental factors which influence our health[9]. An understanding of the wider determinants of health ensures we take a holistic approach to planning and designing places. It acknowledges that healthy, cohesive communities are the result of not just places with accessible health care and green spaces, but also where the social, cultural and economic wellbeing factors are also in place to allow individuals to achieve their full potential, thereby bringing about the total wellbeing of their community. Therefore, it is important to ensure access to facilities like jobs and community spaces is fundamental to place-making. For more details, view Government guidance[10].

15output

[1] Building with Nature (2017). Available at: https://www.buildingwithnature.org.uk/

[2] Natural England (2014) Green Infrastructure Guidance. Available at: http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/publication/35033

[3] Landscape Institute (2011). Local Green Infrastructure. Helping communities make the most of their landscape https://www.landscapeinstitute.org/PDF/Contribute/LocalGreenInfrastructurewebversion_000.pdf

[4] Green Infrastructure Partnership Resource Library https://www.tcpa.org.uk/pages/category/green-infrastructure-partnership

[7] Play England (2009) Nature play: Maintenance guide. Available at http://www.playengland.org.uk/media/120468/nature-play-maintenance-guide.pdf

[8] Centre for Excellence in Universal Design (CEUD) by the National Disability Authority (NDA) http://universaldesign.ie/

[9] Public Health England (2017). Chapter 6: Social Determinants of Health https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/health-profile-for-england/chapter-6-social-determinants-of-health

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